Cavers apprentices in Scotland, 1762-1800

I’ve recently been studying the new database of apprentice indenture duties available on This is based on records held in The National Archives at Kew in Surrey, and includes the names of many masters, apprentices and details of the trades they were pursuing, across the UK, between 1710 and 1811. By studying the original document images I’ve already extracted the details of apprentices in Melrose parish in Roxburghshire, 201 pairs of master-apprentice names between 1734 and 1804, and I will be doing a similar extraction for Coldingham parish in Berwickshire, my other one-place study.

However it’s also possible to search for apprentices or masters with the surname Cavers. There are very few, just three.

The earliest recorded is Robert Cavers at Lauder in Berwickshire in 1762, who was apprenticed to shoemaker Robert Romanus. This may be Robert Cavers who married Mary Tweedup at Lauder in 1784 and had descendants. There was certainly a Cavers cluster at Lauder around then, though I don’t know where they came from originally.

Then in 1793 there was a payment for James Cavers who was apprenticed to John Lydon junior taylor at Denholm, in Cavers parish. It’s difficult to be sure about this, but from the date, and the likely age at which he would have been apprenticed it’s possible that this was the son christened in 1780 at Cavers parish to father Robert Cavers. If so that would match up with James Cavers (1780-1866) husband of Margaret Blackburn who emigrated to Ormstown in Quebec, was a farmer there, and had many descendants.

I’m most confident about the third Cavers apprentice. This was Charles Cavers whose apprenticeship dues to Adam Hart weaver in Lockieshedge in Wilton parish were paid in 1800. This has to be Charles Cavers (ca1784-1864) son of Thomas Cavers and Janet Scott who had other children christened in the Wilton/Hawick area. Charles was known to be a weaver, and also a soldier, married at Wilton in 1805, and later settled in Lilliesleaf.

I had hoped to find a reference in the records to William Cavers the gunsmith in London, which might have helped me identify his origins more. It’s possible he was apprenticed, but his name could have been misrecorded or mistranscribed. As it is there are only these three Cavers apprentices that I can confidently identify as part of the one-name study.

More details about Francis Cavers who died after being assaulted in 1874

Previously I blogged about the death of Francis Cavers, after being assaulted. I’ve just found another newspaper report which gives more details, particularly of his life and character:

Southern Reporter, 1874 May 28


Mr Francis Cavers, a native of Tweedside, and for many years gardener at Ashiestiel, and latterly jobbing gardener at Galashiels, and who also acted as sexton at Ladhope, has died from the effects of injuries received in the neighbourhood of Hawick. He was set upon one evening by a party (now in custody) on the way from Hawick to Wilton Dean, and so brutally maltreated that he died on Saturday last. He was interred yesterday. He was a quiet, industrious man, very peaceable and obliging in disposition; and much regret is felt for his widow and family.

Francis has descendants living today. I descend from his younger sister Margaret, Mrs Hall, who lived not far from Francis when he died. Both were great-grandchildren of James Cavers and Isabella Coltherd.

Cavers death after assault in Hawick, 1874

Only recently I discovered that my distant g..uncle Francis Cavers in Hawick had died from injuries sustained in an assault in 1874. His death certificate, which I’d checked previously, gave the cause of death as “inflammation of Brain, 8 days”, which didn’t strike me as anything unusual. But it was only through a search in the online Scotsman newspaper archive that I discovered the fuller story:

The Scotsman; 1874 July 7. JEDBURGH-JURY COURT-At a Jury Court at Jedburgh yesterday, Walter Murray, labourer, Wilton-dean, was charged with assaulting Francis Cavers, gardener, Wilton Lodge, by knocking him down with his fist, and attempting to strangle him. From the evidence it appeared that each party had given the other the lie before the assault took place. Cavers had been so seriously maltreated that congestion of the brain set in, and he died three weeks after the assault. The jury, by a majority, found the charge proven, but considering that there might have been provocation, recommended the prisoner to the leniency of the Court. The Sheriff sentenced Murray to two months’ imprisonment.

Sometime I plan to check local newspapers in Hawick, to see if they say any more about the incident and subsequent death and trial. I’d also like to check the trial papers, if they survive, but I’m not sure if they’d be in Edinburgh, or in Jedburgh. The death must have had a big impact on the family at the time. Francis Cavers was married, with six children, and also had many surviving brothers and sisters, nephews and nieces. He was the oldest son of Thomas Cavers and Helen Scott, and a great-grandson of James Cavers and Isabella Coltherd.

Family of James Cavers and Isabella Coltherd

This family is important as an example of a Cavers family tree because it shows how incomplete references in historical records can be pieced together to build up a more complete family tree. It is also a relatively early Scottish Cavers family tree.

The earliest confident references to the family are a series of baptisms of sons in 1760s Roberton parish, a parish near Hawick straddling county boundaries in Roxburghshire and Selkirkshire:

May 14 1761: Baptised John son to James Cavers in Horsecleugh.

Jany 16 1763: Baptised Francis son to James Cavers in Harden.

April 30 1765: Baptised James son to James Cavers in Harden.

Octr 2 1767: Baptised Walter son to James Cavers in Harden.

One of these sons, James, lived to be 98, and can be traced in 19th century census returns, linking him conclusively, along with his extremely precise age at death, to the Roberton baptism. His 1863 Hawick death certificate names his parents as James Cavers, Shepherd, and his wife Isabella Coulthard, both of them deceased. There is no marriage recorded for a couple of this name, but there is a marriage recorded between a “Walter” Cavers and Isabella Coltherd in Roberton parish dated 1760 May 31. Both the bride and the groom were living in Roberton parish at the time of their marriage.

My suspicion is that this is a mis-recording in the parish registers (happened surprisingly often in these historical records) and that groom Walter was really James. This is more likely because the marriage record was not a record of the marriage ceremony, but rather a payment made before proclamation of banns, which might be more prone to memory errors than the ceremony itself. The 1760 groom being James would fit well with the later run of baptisms, and crucially also the death certificate of James Cavers (1765-1863). It also fits with the names that that son James gave to his many children, including second daughter (who would normally, per traditional Scottish naming patterns, be named after his mother) who he named Isobel.

Going further back in time it is possible that Isabella Coltherd was a daughter of Francis Coltherd and Isobel Young who married in 1724 in Roberton parish and had many children baptised there. An index of Selkirkshire baptisms checked many years ago at the Scottish Borders Archive and Local History Centre (when it was at St Mary’s Mill in Selkirk) includes the baptism of a daughter Isobel in 1737. However the parish register entry for this baptism is extremely faint, and it is difficult to be sure if this child’s name was correct, although it appears to have “called Isobel” squeezed in at the end. Other children of the couple were Mary (1727), George (1732), John (1734), William (1739), Agnes (1742) and Agnes (1745).

James Cavers is harder to trace back in time, but the parish registers have such scanty coverage and most Cavers births at this time are unrecorded. There doesn’t seem to be a promising baptism for James. If his father was called John, as the name of his eldest known son might suggest, then perhaps he was related to either John Cavers married to Elspeth Young, 3 Jul 1725 at Hawick or John Cavers married to Agnes Easten, 30 Nov 1729 at Wilton.

It is not known when James Cavers or Isabella Coltherd died, or where. However two of their sons were buried in Wilton churchyard in the town of Hawick, in the old Wilton churchyard south of Princes Street whose stones were cleared in the 1950s:

1938 Hawick Archaeological Society Transactions
Wilton graveyard, p. 45, 3. H.S.
On Front – In Memory of JANE WATSON (rest illegible)
On Back – In Memory of FRANCIS CAVERS, late shepherd, Peelbrae-hope, who died 5th January 1810 aged _7 years; (also) …IA HOGG, … Lo—ide Brae, 22nd April 18__ aged 24 (?) years.

The front of the stone commemorated Francis and Euphemia’s daughter-in-law Jane Watson (first wife of their son James). Euphemia Hogg’s age at death was difficult to read (hence the question mark), and it is likely the stone had worn or crumbled and the age was originally different. On old worn gravestones the number 5 commonly changes with time to 2 and it is quite likely that Euphemia was in her 50s when she died. Peelbraehope is a place in Cavers parish, and Euphemia probably died at Longside Brae, another place in Cavers parish.

Francis’s brother James was buried nearby:

1938 Hawick Archaeological Society Transactions
Wilton graveyard, p. 44:
In memory of JEAN SCOTT, spouse to James Cavers, born at Thorn-hall 4th Aug. 1760, died at Woodfoot 29 Dec. 1813; also three of their children; also the above JAMES CAVERS, who died at Hawick 1st June 1863, aged 98 years; and JANE BOLE, his second wife, who died at Hawick 5th May 1855, aged 54 years.

Now here are outline details of the four known children of James Cavers and Isabella Coltherd, and their children where known:

1. John Cavers, c. 14 May 1761 at Roberton. Nothing further known.

2. Francis Cavers, christened 16 Jan 1763 at Roberton. Worked as a shepherd. Married 9 Jun 1789 to Euphemia Hogg, he living at Ropelawsheall in Ettrick parish at marriage, she at Craiksheall in Roberton parish. The family moved around over subsequent years, but ultimately settled in Cavers parish. Francis died in 1810, and there was a family gravestone (now removed) in Wilton Churchyard.

Francis and Euphemia’s children were:

  • James Cavers, christened 28 Nov 1789 at Ettrick. Died 6 Jul 1875 at Kirkton. Worked as a shepherd and married twice, firstly to Jane Watson (died 1830) in 1813, with issue (Margaret, Euphemia, Francis, Walter, Jane and Helen); secondly to Janet Jackson, seemingly with no issue, and she apparently died before him according to his death certificate. James was an elder at the United Presbyterian Church in Hawick, and I have seen a photograph of him, found by sheer chance one day while browsing through a book about that church.
  • Thomas Cavers, born June 1791 at Ettrick. Died between 1835 and 1841. Worked as ploughman. Marriage recorded 16 May 1813 at Wilton parish to Helen Scott (born circa 1792 in Hobkirk, Roxburghshire; d. 1870 at Wilton Dean, Wilton), illegitimate daughter of joiner William Scott and Elizabeth Ingles later second wife of Thomas Hope of Hope Park, Wilton. Couple had large family (Francis, Helen, James, John, Margaret, Elizabeth, Thomas, William, Euphemia, and Jane). This is my line. I descend from their daughter Margaret, wife of Hugh Hall at Wilton Dean.
  • Francis Cavers, christened 8 Aug 1793 at Kirkton. Nothing further known.
  • Margaret Cavers, christened 29 May 1796 at Kirkton. Nothing further known.
  • William Cavers, christened 25 Nov 1798 at Kirkton. Worked as a shepherd and moved about a fair bit, before settling at Ashkirk, Roxburghshire. Died at St Boswells on 12 Aug 1873. He had married Mary Hunter, who was born circa 1805 at Tinwald, Dumfriesshire. The couple had at least 5 children (Francis, Mary, Elizabeth, Euphemia, and David).
  • John Cavers, born 24 Jun 1801 at Cavers. He married Agnes Gregor (born ca 1797, Canonbie, died before 1871) who sometimes appears under the surname spelling McGregor. The couple had 4 children (Francis, John, James and Catherine) and about 1855 the family emigrated to Ontario, Canada, settling in the Sydenham/Owen Sound area where they worked as farmers. Father John Cavers died 18th April 1880 at Sydenham.
3. James Cavers, christened 30 Apr 1765 at Roberton. Died 1 Jun 1863 at 12 Kirkwynd, Hawick. Death certificate records his occupation as “General Labourer”, the same occupation recorded for him in the 1851 census. The 1841 census recorded him as an “Ag Lab”. James married twice, firstly in 1788 in Cavers parish to Jean Scott (1760-1813), secondly in 1825 in Kirkton parish to Jean Bole (ca1800-1855), daughter of James Bole and Margaret Scott. Descendants of this family have seen a painting of James Cavers in Wilton Lodge Museum in Hawick.

Children of James Cavers and Jean Scott were:

  • James, christened 3 Oct 1790 at Kirkton. Probably the same James Cavers who emigrated to Galt, Ontario, Canada, and died there 30 Jul 1861. Married Mary Biggar (died Mar 1864 at Galt) and had at least 3 children (Andrew, John, and a daughter). The evidence for linking this Canadian James to this Scotland-born one is the death notice which appeared in the “Hawick Advertiser” newspaper after his death: “CAVERS. at Galt, on 30th July 1861, Mr. James Cavers, eldest son of Mr. James Cavers, Hawick.” And the Canadian death certificate of James and Mary’s son John Cavers gives his father’s birthplace as Roxburghshire, Scotland.
  • Christian, christened 7 Oct 1793 at Kirkton. Nothing futher known.
  • David, christened 14 Jun 1795 at Kirkton. Died 19 Oct 1874 at 18 High Riggs, Edinburgh. Worked as a waiter. Married 1830 at Dunfermline to Margaret Thomson, with one known child (Elizabeth).
  • Isobel, christened 15 Oct 1797 at Kirkton. Nothing further known.
  • Walter, christened 30 Jun 1799 at Kirkton. Nothing further known.
  • Robert, christened 12 Jul 1801 at Kirkton. Nothing further known.
  • John, christened 8 Aug 1803 at Kirkton. Nothing further known.

Similarly the children of James Cavers and Jean Bole, his second wife, were:

  • Jane, born 26 Sep 1826 at Kirkton. Still alive in 1855 per mother’s death certificate. Nothing further known.
  • Margaret, christened 30 Apr 1829 at Kirkton. Died in 1852 aged 23, per mother’s 1855 death certificate.
  • Isobel, christened 9 Mar 1832 at Kirkton. Still alive in 1855 per mother’s death certificate. Nothing further known.
  • Joannah, christened 21 Dec 1834 at Kirkton. Still alive in 1855 per mother’s death certificate. Nothing further known.
  • Walter Martin, born ca 1842, per mother’s 1855 death certificate. Emigrated to Galt, Ontario, Canada. Died in 1922 at Galt, having married in 1866 Rebecca Wilkinson (ca1838-1909), daughter of Solomon Wilkinson and Catherine Baird, and had 4 known children (Catherine Baird, Elizabeth Jane, Rebecca Jemina, and James John).
  • James, died in 1849 aged 3 1/2 years, per mother’s 1855 death certificate.

4. Walter Cavers, christened 2 Oct 1767 at Roberton. Nothing further known.