Cavers references in the London workhouse records

Ancestry have recently added a searchable database of London workhouse admission and discharge records between 1738 and 1930. The original paper records are held by the London Metropolitan Archives.

Unsurprisingly, given that there was a London cluster of Cavers in the 19th century, there are Cavers references in there. All concern the same family, which I’ve covered on this blog a number of times before.

For example on 19th March 1869 a large Cavers family was admitted to Cleveland Street Workhouse. This was 48-year-old William Cavers, a gun maker, his wife Sarah aged 39, and their children George Edward (10), Earnest F. (9), Grace (6), Alice (4), Edith (3) and Kate (2). Some of the family were only in the workhouse for a day, but Sarah and her youngest daughters were there for several weeks. And some of the children appear back in the same workhouse a couple of months later. George Edward, Ernest Frederick, Alice and Grace were all admitted on 22nd May, but discharged that same day to their parents.

Decades later the father William Cavers appears again in the workhouse records. By now it was 1902, and he was a 81-year-old man. On 5th March 1902 he was recorded still as a gun implement maker, and admitted to the Westminster Union Workhouse. His nearest relative was noted as his son William. This time he stayed in the workhouse until 11th March, when he was discharged at his own request. But that’s not the end of the story. There’s a record for the workhouse on 18th March, of William being discharged to Colney Hatch Asylum, which in its day was the largest lunatic asylum in Europe.

Intriguingly I’d previously thought that William had died between 1881 and 1891, because his wife Sarah appears in the census of 1891 described as a widow. But I’m now guessing that the marriage had broken down, and they were living apart. He was certainly still alive in 1902, as these records show.

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A third Cavers branch matching in Y-DNA project results

I’ve blogged before about the Cavers Y-DNA project at Family Tree DNA. In November 2013 I blogged about preliminary results, including for two different Cavers branches. Now we have the results for a total of three different Cavers branches, and I can reveal those here.

These results are all from the Y-DNA for male line Cavers descendants. Y-DNA is passed down from father to son, generation after generation. This means that a modern-day male descendant should have inherited the Y-DNA from his distant male line ancestors. And if his family name i.e. surname is passed down from father to son over many generations, with no female illegitimacy links in the chain, this should be a guide to his distant ancestry in that surname line. And that includes Cavers.

We now have three Cavers lines represented in the results for the Cavers Y-DNA study. And as before I’m going to spell out the ancestral lines represented by each of the volunteers who has been DNA tested.

Volunteer 1 is descended from the mysterious Walter Cavers who was born in Roxburghshire circa 1795, before migrating to Nottingham in England, and having many living descendants.

Volunteer 2 descends from Thomas Cavers (ca1810-1879) who emigrated from Castleton, Roxburghshire to Lanark County, Ontario, Canada. This Cavers family can be traced back one further generation, to John Cavers and Jean Douglas, who married in Hawick in 1789 and lived in Castleton. But beyond that it is a mystery.

The new volunteer 3 descends from John Cavers and Margaret Cleghorn. This John was a son of John Cavers and Elizabeth Hislop who I have blogged in detail about before. Again this is a Roxburghshire family, and traces back to a couple who married in Hawick in 1793.

I am pleased to say that Y-DNA results for all three of these Cavers branches match, suggesting that all three branches have a shared origin further back in time. In other words these lines and their descendants are cousins of each other. There are a few small differences between the DNA results, but not enough to prevent a confident match being made. It is normal for some mutations in DNA to occur over many generations.

In addition in the project we have a couple of non-Cavers descendants (at least as far as we know) who have been Y-DNA tested and seem, intriguingly, to be pretty close matches to the Cavers results. Not sure what is happening there – it’s a mystery! But the more Cavers people we can get tested in future, the clearer the picture could become.

What I would really like to see is for more different Cavers branches to be tested. For example we haven’t yet had anyone volunteer to be tested from the extensive Berwickshire Cavers family, or the Cavers family including Adam Cavers and his many descendants and cousins, including a large number who settled in Ormstown, Quebec, Canada. Nor have I yet been able to identify a male line Y-DNA carrying living descendant of my own Cavers branch.

Basically the more Cavers branches we can get tested, the clearer the picture will become of how they are connected to each other. There will almost certainly be some Cavers Y-DNA results that don’t match others, but that in itself is useful information, and worth knowing.

So if you are a male line Cavers descendant who may carry Cavers Y-DNA, especially for a so far untested branch, I would love to hear from you. Or if you are a female Cavers descendant but have a brother or uncle or cousin who may be able to be Y-DNA tested for your branch then that would be great too. I can’t afford to pay for all tests, but have recommended before that cousins can club together to spread the cost of a DNA test. And DNA tests are now at a lower general cost than they have ever been. For more information on the testing process, see my earlier blog post about the project.

I will continue to report new results as they come in.

Preliminary Cavers Y-DNA project results

Some months ago I started a Cavers Y-DNA project at Family Tree DNA. This is very much a long term thing, as I blogged at the time. The aim is to compare direct male line Cavers DNA, passed down from father to son, to see if different Cavers lines are related, and how closely.

So far one male line Cavers descendant has signed up for a brand new Family Tree DNA test. He descends from a branch of Cavers that is believed to originate in Roxburghshire, Scotland, with Walter Cavers born in Scotland circa 1795, but who then moved to Nottingham, England, and established a large family with many descendants. Walter’s origins are something of a mystery. There is no obviously clear baptism to tie up to him, without some problems and question marks. And many Cavers births are missing from the parish registers anyway. His could be one of those. So let’s call for the purposes of this blog post this DNA line that’s been tested Volunteer 1, a direct male line descendant of the mysterious Walter.

Shortly after that another Cavers descendant agreed to transfer their Y-DNA test results from Ancestry to Family Tree DNA. This can be done for a small fee, and is possible because of an agreement between the lab that Ancestry use and the Family Tree DNA system. This person descends from Thomas Cavers (ca1810-1879) who emigrated from Castleton, Roxburghshire to Lanark County, Ontario, Canada. He had many descendants, and a number of siblings who emigrated around the same time. This family line can be traced back to Thomas’s father John Cavers, who married in Hawick in 1798, and had a large family in Castleton parish. But John’s origins are also something of a mystery. Again there is no obvious baptism for him. Nor do the names of his children offer significant clues. Let’s call the DNA testee in this line Volunteer 2, again a direct male line Cavers descendant, this time of Thomas and John.

Some of the DNA results for Volunteer 1 came through quickly, for 12 markers of Y-DNA, and showed a perfect match with Volunteer 2’s Y-DNA. For such an unusual surname this suggests strongly that they have a shared male ancestry, although because Volunteer 2’s DNA was transferred over from Ancestry it’s not possible in Family Tree DNA to run a further report estimating how close the connection is. Then tonight the fuller results for Volunteer 1 have come through, sooner than expected, accurate to 37 markers, which can be compared with the 27 markers available from Volunteer 2’s transfer from Ancestry. And again they match very very closely. There is one genetic difference, but that may be due to a mutation in a later generation. Again though the indication is shared ancestry.

But to complicate things further a third test kit then matched the Y-DNA of volunteers 1 and 2, and this person isn’t even a known Cavers descendant! They are a Cowings, descended from Cowings or Cowan ancestors traced back to Gateshead, County Durham, and 1720. On 12 markers this person, let’s call them Volunteer 3, for they have now joined the Cavers Y-DNA project, match the DNA results for Volunteer 1 and Volunteer 2 perfectly. Extending things to 25 markers Volunteer 3 has a close match to Volunteer 1, with just 2 genetic differences i.e. a genetic distance of 2, and an even closer match to Volunteer 2 (at least those 23 markers available after transfer for Volunteer 2), with 1 genetic distance. At 37 markers Volunteer 1 again matches Volunteer 3 closely, with a genetic distance (differences in marker numbers) of just 2 – very strongly indicative of shared ancestry. Volunteer 2’s available 27 markers match Volunteer 3’s, but with a genetic distance of 3 this time. A further 3 genetic markers (outside the core 37) available for Volunteer 2 also match Volunteer 3’s results.

So what does this mean?! Well I think the 12 marker results indicate shared male line ancestry in all cases, but the higher genetic distance when more markers are compared suggest it is somewhat distant. Genetic distance grows as mutations in the DNA occur, and these mutations happen more frequently over a long time, and many generations. Volunteer 1’s line seems to tie up more closely with Volunteer 3’s line than Volunteer 2’s does. But I am confident that they ultimately have the same ancestry. With the Y-DNA results from Volunteer 1 and Volunteer 3 it’s possible to run a report at Family Tree DNA which estimates how closely the lines are related. This suggests that the chances of Volunteer 1 and Volunteer 3 sharing a common ancestor in 6 generations is almost 54%, in 8 generations 71%, and in 10 generations 83%. In genealogical terms this is relatively close, and quite exciting.

As for the Cowings/Cowan thing, I can’t give a simple answer at the moment. One possible explanation is that a distant Cowings or Cowan ancestor dallied with a Cavers, to put it nicely! Or that there is an illegitimacy link there somewhere, and a Miss Cowan had an illegitimate child, father someone Cavers, and the child took on the Cowan surname. There was a cluster of Cavers people in the Durham area from at least the 18th century onwards, and possibly earlier. Though they probably had Roxburghshire origins ultimately.

Alternatively it’s possible these Cavers lines link up to a Cowan in their ancestry somewhere. That is equally possible, and DNA can’t give a simple answer to this, especially because anything like this probably happened an extremely long time ago, before the good written records we genealogists rely on for piecing together family trees using documentation.

But it is all very exciting. To have two separate Cavers lines link up through the DNA when there was no evidence before of a connection is superb. We can now reasonably say that the Nottingham descendants and the Canadian descendants of John Cavers in Castleton are distant cousins of each other. And the Cowan matching side of things is interesting for raising more questions than answers. All information is good information.

Ultimately though we need more volunteers to sign up to have their DNA tested, from different Cavers branches. The more lines we can get tested, the bigger the picture the DNA can build of if and how the various lines are connected. And perhaps we might in some cases be able to back this up by tracing links in the documentary records, spurred on by the findings from the DNA tests. That would be nice. For more information about what is involved in testing, including the costs of the test kits, please see my original blog post about the project.

More about John Cavers who died on the tramcar in New Zealand

I’ve just got details of the death certificate of John Cavers whose death I blogged about the other day. Unfortunately the parents’ details are blank on the certificate, not known. But he was thought to be born in England. I suspect that his age recorded at death was inaccurate, and that he was possibly John Cavers born at Tynemouth in 1869. If so he was the boy who was convicted of theft aged 12 in 1881, and sent onto a local training ship. This would have trained him for working in the merchant navy or similar service at sea, and the man who died in the New Zealand tramcar had occupation “Marine Fireman”. So that fits quite well with someone with that occupation who had ended up in New Zealand. I can’t prove it yet, but I’m pretty confident it’s likely to be correct now.

Cavers events database uploaded to Google Docs

Ever since I registered my Cavers one-name study with the Guild of One-Name Studies I’ve been building up a database of events of Cavers people, using Microsoft Excel. So births, marriages, deaths, christenings, census returns, and so on. In the last few years it has stopped being updated, as my illness got worse, but it is still a useful resource, often including very obscure references that I have found, or friends have found and forwarded to me. As of today there are nearly 3000 entries in the Cavers events database.

In the interests of sharing this resource, and in particular in case anything happens to me (my health situation is extremely precarious), I have just uploaded it to Google Docs and it can be found and viewed through this link.

I need to explain the format though. There are 13 fields, each taking up a column of the spreadsheet:

  • surname (not always Cavers)
  • forenames
  • date
  • event
  • place
  • age
  • relatives (if named in record)
  • source (identifying the original record I found)
  • notes (for miscellaneous things like occupation etc.)
  • birthplace (if recorded e.g. in birth or census returns)
  • other names (surnames)
  • connection (where person fits into Cavers trees, e.g. c[hild of] Adam Cavers and Janet Clark or s[pouse of] Helen Scott)
  • other (for any other genealogical notes)

As you’ll probably gather it’s quite ad-hoc! But it sort of works.

The entries are sorted by forename, date, event. But because of the way the dates were entered as general text fields, including dates that may or may not have a month and day after the year, the sorting isn’t perfect. So, for example, there are entries in the spreadsheet for Adam Cavers in 1855, 1864, 1879 etc. and then these are followed by Adam Cavers references to years+months+days, e.g. 1770 Nov 11, 1782 Oct 9. Apologies. But keep that in mind when browsing through the data.

Places in the database are generally abbreviated for county names, at least in Scotland. So, for example, Hawick would be recorded as “Hawick, ROX”, using the standard genealogical abbreviation for Roxburghshire. Apologies if this is confusing in places. The spreadsheet was created for my own use. Other common county abbreviations you may see include SEL for Selkirkshire, BEW for Berwickshire, DFS for Dumfriesshire, MLN for Midlothian and so on. For a full list of them see here.

The events database is particularly strong for Scotland. And also very good for Ontario (Canada). Moderately good for England. But it has a way to go.

Census events in it generally go up to 1891. There are obviously later census references that can now be found for the family, but I haven’t put them into the database yet. They are generally well indexed though, at the various websites such as Ancestry.

At the moment I am not inviting new entries for the database, though that may change. In the meantime though, please feel free to browse it on the web, and to download it if you want. Using the file menu provides various download options, and you can save the whole sheet to your computer. But other people can’t currently edit the document online.

Bumper set of Cavers marriages from Tynemouth, north-east England

My Cavers one-name study is registered with the Guild of One-Name Studies. One of the advantages of that is I that get to tap in to the knowledge and expertise of other members. And also sometimes others can access historical records in local archives I could not easily access myself. This is particularly the case with the regular Marriage Challenges.

In England and Wales marriage certificates cost 9.25 pounds to get copies of each time, just to see the details. There is no open access system as there is in Scotland, and no digitised online relatively low-cost access method, as in ScotlandsPeople. So to see what a marriage says I have to fork out a lot each time, and I can’t afford to do that very often.

An alternative is to look in the church registers for the parish where the couple married, if they married in church, to find their marriage recorded that way. This only usually works if you know exactly which parish to look in. Unless, that is, you are doing a marriage challenge and checking all parishes in a given district in a blanket search way. There the Guild member takes a list of marriages for theirs and other one-name studies known to have happened in a single registration district, and looks for those marriages in ALL of the surviving church parish registers. It helps if you can provide the Guild member doing the Marriage Challenge with a precise marriage parish – if for example recorded in the IGI or FamilySearch – and the name of the spouse if known. But generally they work from just the bare details: that a marriage of a particular one-name study surname person was recorded in district X, quarter Y, year Z.

Usually I don’t have any success with Cavers lookups in English and Welsh Marriage Challenges. The surname is so rare in England and Wales that there typically aren’t any marriages registered in the single district being checked each time. Even if there are Cavers marriages in the district, as happened recently in a Marriage Challenge for a registration district in north Northumberland, very near the Border with Scotland, the family are either non-conformist so their marriages don’t appear in the deposited Church of England church registers, or they married in registry offices. So again zero results.

That’s what usually happens. But today in the post, thanks to fellow Guild member Phil Thirkell and his Tynemouth Marriage Challenge, I have received the details of four Cavers marriages that are all new to my research. All are from the extreme southern tip of Northumberland in north-east England, near Newcastle.

Three of the marriages took place in Christ Church, North Shields, and were marriages of siblings from the same family, all daughters of John Ebenezer Cavers, waterman. First Jane Fleming Cavers married pipe manufacturer John Squires Gray in August 1850. A few months later her older sister Mary married miner Joseph Johnson in November 1850. Finally their younger sister Hannah married in January 1858, to joiner John Elsdon. This Cavers family can be readily located in the 1841 and 1851 census returns. In 1851 Jane and her new husband were living with their widowed father and sister Hannah.

The fourth Cavers marriage that the Tynemouth Marriage Challenge found was from the following generation of this family. Margaret Jane Cavers, daughter of Joseph Ebenezer Cavers and niece of the earlier brides, married at St Peter, Wallsend, in September 1868. Her husband was sailmaker John Weatherston, and her father Joseph Ebenezer Cavers was noted as a blacksmith. He shows up in the 1841 census with his father John Ebenezer Cavers and siblings, and can be traced forward in time.

I need to research this Tynemouth family more. I’ve been contacted by a descendant in the past, but was unable to provide new information for them. But I should put together what I know so far, and document it, before seeing where I can extend it. Today’s Marriage Challenge results move things on a lot and give me a very good basis to work from.

A London dynasty of gunsmiths and publicans

This post outlines a relatively early London Cavers family. It seems likely that the family had Scottish origins if they could be traced back far enough, but unfortunately this isn’t possible at the moment. For generations the family were gunsmiths and then publicans in the London area.

The earliest known members of the family are William Cavers and his wife Sarah, who can be matched with a marriage on 28 Jan 1808 at Bloomsbury St George. This gives Sarah’s maiden name as Nussey, and both bride and groom were of that parish. The 1851 census records Sarah’s birthplace as Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, which together with her age in 1851 and 1861 allows her likely baptism to be traced, on 16 Apr 1788, daughter of George and Mary Nussey.

However it is possible that an earlier Cavers couple in London are linked to this family. On 23 Jan 1783 William Cavers and Jane Howell married in the church of Harrow St Mary, both of that parish, he a bachelor, she a spinster. It is possible that they were the parents of William who married Sarah Nussey. Alternatively he could be the same man, marrying twice, but the signatures recorded for the grooms at the 1783 and 1808 marriages do not seem to match.

William who married Sarah Nussey was a gun implement maker or gunsmith. He signed a will on 24 Mar 1841, and does not appear in the 1841 census with his family, at Strand Golden Buildings, St Clement Danes, Westminster, so may have died between the two dates. The death of a William Cavers was registered in the April-May-June quarter of 1841 at Strand RD, London. William’s widow Sarah was still living in 1861, described as a “Fundholder”, and probably died in 1865, with a death for Sarah Cavers registered in April-May-June quarter at Pancras RD.

William Cavers and Sarah Nussey had at least the following children:

1. Elizabeth Ann, c. 14 May 1809 at St George, Bloomsbury, Middlesex.

2. Caroline, b. ca 1812 at Clerkenwell, Middlesex. Married 29 Sep 1839 at Saint Bride Fleet St, London, to Charles Darling, cabinet maker who d. between 1861 and 1871. By 1881 Caroline seems to have been an inmate of some sort of hospital at 37 And 38, Gt Alie St, Whitechapel.

The couple’s children were at least:

  • William Darling, b. 1 Aug 1840, c. 22 Nov 1840 Limehouse St Anne. Living in 1861 (then “Engineer Lab”).
  • Jane Darling, b. 5 Aug 1841, c. 27 Aug 1841 Limehouse St Anne. Living in 1871.
  • Charlotte Darling, b. 19 Oct 1842, c. 9 Nov 1842, Limehouse St Anne. Living in 1851.
  • Mary Ann Darling, b. 8 Mar 1844, c. 29 Mar 1844, Limehouse St Anne. Living in 1851.
  • Elizabeth Darling, b. 21 Jun 1845, c. 11 Jul 1845 Limehouse St Anne. Living in 1871.
  • Caroline Darling, b. 20 Sep 1849, c. 28 Oct 1849, Limehouse St Anne. Living in 1861.
  • Charles Darling, b. 9 Feb 1852, c. 4 Jul 1852, Limehouse St Anne. Living in 1871.

3. Jane, b. 23 Jul 1815, c. 20 Oct 1816 at St Andrew Holborn, father’s occupation “Turner”. Married 28 Sep 1845 at Saint Bride Fleet St, London, to Joseph William Dunn. In the 1851 census Joseph’s occupation was “Coach Budgett Trimmer” and Jane’s “Coach Lining Maker”. In 1861 Joseph’s occupation was “Journeyman Harness Maker”. By 1871 Joseph was described as a “Coach Maker”.

The couple’s children were at least:

  • William J. Dunn, b. ca 1845. Living in 1871.
  • Harry F. Dunn, b. ca 1859. Living in 1861.
  • Caroline S. Dunn, b. ca 1851. Living in 1871.
  • Edward J. Dunn, b. ca 1853. Living in 1861.
  • Charlotte Dunn, b. ca 1855. Living in 1871.

4. Charles, c. 16 Nov 1817 at St Giles in the Fields, father’s occupation “Brass-turner”. Charles’s occupation was Gun Maker. Married 7 Feb 1842 at Parish of St Andrew Holborn to Mary Ann Gifford Gravatt (b. ca 1821/2 in London, daughter of Henry Gravatt soap boiler, d. 17 Sep 1855 at 163 Goldhawk Road, Shepherds Bush).

The couple’s children were at least:

  • Maria Cavers, b. 22 May 1843, c. 28 Jun 1843 at Lambeth St John the Evangelist (father “Gun maker”).
  • Charles Cavers, b. 1845, St James RD, London. Married to Mary Ann ???, possibly Mary Ann Cretten: a bride of this name appears on same page of certificates as, apparently, a Charles Covers, in September quarter 1865, St Giles RD, London – very possibly Charles Cavers misindexed. Charles and Mary Ann had issue (at least Ada Elizabeth, Emily Harriet, and Florence Mary). Occupation of Charles at Emily’s 1869 baptism was “Waiter” and at Ada’s 1892 marriage. Though when Emily Harriet married in 1897 her father’s occupation was recorded as “Gun Maker”, as it was when Florence Mary married in 1905. Charles died 1872, Holborn RD, London. In 1881 census his widow’s occupation was Charwoman. By 1891 she was listed as a Cook, Ada as a Machinist, Emily as a Druggist Packer, and Florence as a Feather Curler.
  • Henry Cavers, b. abt 1847, St James or Bow, London. Died 31 Jan 1905, then of 113 Devons Road, Bow. Waiter / Coffee House proprietor. Married 7 Sep 1873 at Parish Church, Camberwell, to Fanny Gravatt (b. abt 1848, St Pancras, daughter of Alfred Gravatt cook, d. aft 31 Jan 1905) with issue (at least Helen, Eleanor, William, Augustus, Alice, Maud and Walter Percy).
  • Herbert Cavers, b. 1848/9 in St James RD, c. 21 Jun 1860 at Holborn St Giles in the Fields. Died 1871 St Saviour RD, London. Married 14 Aug 1870 at Parish Church, Islington, to Harriett Hannah Suckling (daughter of James Suckling, stone mason), with issue (Herbert James Suckling). Harriet remarried, on 6 Feb 1876 at Gray’s Inn Road St Jude, Camden, to George Henry Seymour, a Carpenter.
  • Emily Cavers, b. 1852/3, St James RD or Bloomsbury RD, c, 21 Jun 1860 at Holborn St Giles in the Fields. Married 6 Jul 1873 at Parish Church, Islington, to Thomas Shaddock Stevens (b. 1851/2, Bideford, Devon), a Traveller / Licensed Victualler. Had issue (at least Augustus C., Ada E., Mabel L., Ethel M., Sidney C., Alice G. and Edith G.).
  • Augustus Cavers, c. 21 Jun 1860 at Holborn St Giles in the Fields. Seems to have married his first cousin Alice Fussell on 2 Apr 1882 at Parish Church, Islington St Mary. In mother’s will (1885) Augustus was described as licensed victualler of Wheatsheaf Hotel, Goldhawk Road, Shepherds Bush, Middlesex. Also at one point described as an “Engraver Artiz”. 1891 census reveals that he and Alice had issue (at least Edgar A. and Albert G.)
  • Eliza Cavers, b. abt 1860, c. 21 Jun 1860 at Holborn St Giles in the Fields (father “Gun maker”), d. after 1861.

5. William, c. 19 Nov 1820 at St Pancras Old St Pancras, father’s occupation “Gun smith”. Gun maker. Married 20 Aug 1854 at Myddelton Square St Mark, Islington, to Sarah Thrift (b. ca 1831, daughter of William Thrift bookmaker). William seems to have died between 1881 and 1891, assuming that Sarah Cavers in the 1891 census, widow, aged 61, and charwoman living at 29, Block E Peabody Buildings, Great Wild Street, Bloomsbury was most probably his widow.

The couple’s children were at least:

  • William Cavers, b. 1853/4, St Marylebone, Middlesex. Living in 1881. Probably the 58-year-old William Cavers living in 1911 with nephew Thomas Faulis, Musical Instrument Maker.
  • Emma Cavers, b. abt 1855. Living in 1871.
  • Louisa A Cavers, b. abt 1856. Living in 1871.
  • Edwin G Cavers, b. abt 1857. Living in 1871.
  • Ernest F Cavers, b. abt 1860. Living in 1871.
  • Grace Cavers, b. abt 1860. Married 17 Apr 1881 at Walworth All Saints Church, Southwark, to George William James, Cabman.
  • Alice Cavers, b. abt 1863. Living in 1871.
  • Edith Cavers, b. abt 1866. Living in 1871.
  • Kate Cavers, b. abt 1868. Living in 1871.

6. George, b. ca 1822, buried 20 Apr 1823 at St Andrew, Holborn, London, aged 1. Residence given as St Giles in the Fields. Am assuming that he was most likely a son of William and Sarah.

7. Sarah Maria, c. 27 Feb 1825 at Holborn St Giles in the Fields. Died after 1881. Licensed Victualler in 1871. Publican in 1881. Married 16 Oct 1842 at Parish Church, St Bride, London, to Joseph Fussell, compositor, and later journeyman printer, probably living with his family two doors along from the Cavers family in the 1841 census.

The couple’s children were at least:

  • Sarah Fussell, b. ca 1844, St George the Martyr, Middlesex. Living in 1851.
  • Joseph Fussell, b. ca 1845, Clerkenwell, Middlesex. Alive Living in 1851. Probably the Joseph Fussell, Compositor, son of Joseph Fussell (Deceased) Compositor, who married 19 Jun 1876 at St Peter’s Church, St Peter’s Saffron Hill, London, to Jemima Peppinall (?surname hard to read).
  • Jane Fussell, b. ca 1850. Living in 1871.
  • William Fussell, b. ca 1853. Living in 1871. Probably William Fussell, Warehouseman, son of Joseph Fussell (Deceased) Licensed Victualler, who married 31 Jul 1875 at St Mark’s Dalton, West Hackney, to Frances Helen Fussell.
  • Alice Fussell, b. 1863/4, Middlesex. Occupation before marriage: barmaid. Seems to have married her first cousin Augustus Cavers who was living with her and her mother in 1881. See above. On Alice’s marriage certificate her father Joseph is described as a “Licensed Victualler”.

8. Ann, c. 28 Jan 1827 at St Giles in the Fields. Curiously the 1851 census gives her birthplace as “Somerset Bristol”, possibly a mistake, since other census returns give her birthplace as Middlesex. Died after 1881. Milliner in 1851 census. Dressmaker in 1861 census.

Curiously the 1841 London census lists another early Cavers family, living at Coppin’s Court, St Dunstan In The East parish: Elizabeth, 37, a “Cha?? Woman” [hard to read, may be Char, but also looks like Chain!], William seemingly a son, 27, Jane, 13, Richard, 5 and Jane, 11. But this family does not appear in 1851, and I have no idea where they fit in, if at all.

Another relatively early London reference which can’t be linked up to anyone else yet is the marriage on 18 Jul 1812 at Limehouse St Anne parish between John Rivett and Ann Cavers, both of that parish.